First, the articles summary:
To check the understanding of the applicants with the types of risk factors and mechanical intrinsic basic safety requirements of major gear and areas during the manufacture and usage of machinery.
Second, the crucial factors, challenging factors:
(1) Understand the main types of mechanical items;
(2) Understand the intrinsic safety requirements of mechanical style and the type of safety device of the machine;
(3) Familiar with the boiler room, air flow compressor train station, gas train station, oxygen station, acetylene station harmful point and general safety technology administration requirements.
Third, the content points out:
Equipment is a device that is assembled by a quantity of interconnected components and may perform certain features. During the procedure of the mechanical devices, at least some of the essential contraindications motions are made relating to certain guidelines. The total mechanical gadget contains a best mover, a control and control program, a transmission system, a support device and an actuator.
Machinery is an necessary devices in modern creation and lifestyle. While bringing high efficiency, quickness and comfort to people, the machine also brings mechanical harm such as effect, extrusion, reducing and other nonmechanical dangers such as electric surprise, sound and high temperatures during its manufacture, procedure and make use of.
The task of mechanical safety is to take system measures to ensure the safety and health of employees in the entire process of production and use of machinery, from various dangerous factors. Mechanical basic safety includes two elements of the security of mechanical item making and the basic safety of mechanical products.
1.1, mechanical product production safety
(1) Primary classes of mechanical products
There are many types of mechanical products. The main items of the equipment industry are as comes after:
(1) Agricultural equipment: tractors, internal combustion engines, planters, harvesting machinery, etc.
(2) Large mining machinery: metallurgical machinery, mining machinery, lifting machinery, launching and unloading equipment, commercial and mining vehicles, cement tools, etc.
(3) Construction equipment: forklifts, earthmoving equipment, compaction machinery, concrete machinery, etc.
(4) Petrochemical general machinery: oil drilling and mining machinery, oil refining machinery, chemical machinery, pumps, fans, valves, gas compressors, refrigeration and atmosphere conditioning machinery, paper machinery, printing machinery, plastic material processing machinery, pharmaceutical machinery.
(5) Electric machinery: power generation machinery, transformers, electric motors, high and low voltage switches, wire and cable, batteries, electrical welding machines, household devices, etc.
(6) Machine tools: metallic slicing machine equipment, forging machines, foundry equipment, woodworking equipment, etc.
(7) Automobiles: trucks, street buses, vehicles, modified cars, motor bikes, etc.
(8) Instrumentation: automatic equipment, electric tools, optical equipment, component analyzers, automotive instrumentation, electrical products, audio-visual devices, cameras, etc.
(9) Basic equipment: bearings, hydraulic parts, closes, powder metallurgy products, regular fasteners, industrial chains, gears, molds, etc.
(10) Packaging machinery: packaging machinery, metallic packaging items, metallic containers, etc.
(11) Environmental protection machinery: water pollution prevention equipment, air pollution prevention equipment, solid waste treatment equipment, etc.
(12) Additional machinery.
The primary products of the non-mechanical industry include railway equipment, construction equipment, textile equipment, light commercial machinery, and underwater machinery.
(2) Mechanical safety design and machine safety device
Mechanical safety includes safety at all stages of design, manufacturing, installation, adjustment, use, maintenance, and disassembly. Protection style minimizes risk. Mechanical safety design refers to the correct shape and die casting relative position from the part material to the part in the mechanical style stage, from limiting the working power, the quality and velocity of the moving parts to reducing sound and vibration, using intrinsic security technology and power resource, applying zero The rule of forced mechanical actions between components, combined with ergonomic desk concepts and various other actions, avoids or decreases the risk by selecting suitable design buildings; it can also improve the reliability, operation mechanization or automation of the devices and Steps such as changes and maintenance outside the risk zone to prevent or decrease the risk.
Inbuilt safety is usually a mechanical safety method that is certainly used by mechanical designers to take measures to remove mechanical hazards during the design phase.
1) Adopting intrinsic basic safety technology
Intrinsically safe technology refers to the design and manufacture of mechanical predetermined functions by using this technology. It can meet the basic safety requirements of the machine itself when executing established features of the machine under predetermined conditions without using various other protection safety measures. These consist of: avoiding razor-sharp edges, razor-sharp edges and bulges; making sure adequate security distances; identifying limits on physical amounts; using intrinsically safe procedures and power sources.
2) Limit mechanical stress
The mechanical stress of the mechanical parts does not exceed the permissible value and a sufficient safety factor is guaranteed.
3) Basic safety of components and materials
Materials, fuels, and components utilized to help to make equipment have to not endanger the protection or wellness of staff during use. The mechanical properties of the materials, such as tensile strength, shear strength, influence toughness, produce limit, etc., should meet the fill requirements for executing the meant function; the materials should become capable to endure the predetermined environmental circumstances, such as corrosion resistance, aging resistance, and resistance. The capability to put on; the material should have uniformity, prevent the metallographic structure of the materials from becoming uneven credited to unreasonable process style, and create residual stress; at the same period, avoid using dangerous components or chemicals, and should prevent the equipment itself or credited to use. The risk of open fire and explosion from gases, fluids, dust, vapors or various other chemicals created by specific materials.
4) Fulfilling protection ergonomic principles
In the mechanical design, the security man-machine engineering concept is fulfilled by rationally distributing human-machine functions, adapting to human body characteristics, man-machine interface design, function space layout, etc., enhancing the operability and dependability of mechanical equipment, and making the operator’s physical power Intake and mental stress are reduced, thereby reducing functional mistakes.
5) Security concepts for developing control systems
During the utilization of machinery, the usual harmful conditions are: unintended start, out of control of speed modify, motion can not quit, shifting mechanised parts or workpieces fall off, the function of basic safety products is definitely clogged. The style of the control program should take into accounts the working modes of the different procedures or the use of mistake display devices so that the operator can deal with them properly.
6) Prevent the problems of pneumatic and hydraulic systems
Devices that make use of pneumatic, hydraulic, heat, and other devices must be designed to avoid the potential hazards associated with pet discharge of these energies.
First, the articles summary: